In the world of consumer genetics, it can be pretty difficult to know where to start. When searching for a paternity test, accuracy is of course of paramount importance, and you can’t afford to take risks.
Paternity tests may be taken for a range of personal and legal reasons. The universal goal of such a test is to conclude whether or not the sample belongs to the alleged biological father of a child.
A paternity test may be taken for peace of mind or may be used in the court of law when claiming Child Custody, Child Support, or Death Benefits, or in an immigration application.
Today we’ll be reviewing one of the leading paternity test companies in this ever-growing market: Who’zTheDaddy. If you’ve been looking for a paternity test and have considered this one, we’ve done the hard work for you.
We’ll tell you everything you need to know before purchasing a paternity test from Who’zTheDaddy.
Who’zTheDaddy is a UK-based company offering fast and accredited DNA testing services; they’ve been around for about eight years.
They differ from their competitors because they have links with laboratories around the world, rather than one in particular, in the hope that this provides an independent and high-quality service.
Who’zTheDaddy insists that they maintain high ethical standards that comply with the Department of Health’s Code of Practice and Guidance on Genetic Paternity Testing Services.
Because they are used by clients around the world, Who’zTheDaddy also offers a 24-hour customer service, with trained advisers always on call.
How the Test Works
For the Who’ztheDaddy paternity test, a sample is taken from up to three people (the alleged father, the child, and, if possible, the mother). Then the DNA is extracted from these samples for analysis.
Geneticists then compare the DNA profiles of the alleged father with those of the child. Each genetic profile consists of several genetic markers, and Who’zTheDaddy scrutinizes 21 genetic markers to give the most accurate results possible.
They then look for a match between all genetic markers to know whether or not the tested alleged father is the biological father of the child.
The company advises that adding the sample of the mother can help them achieve a more accurate result as they are then able to eliminate her share of genetic inheritance, meaning if a mother’s sample is included, the test can guarantee a minimum probability of 99.99%.
What the Test Includes
Home paternity testing is done using Who’zTheDaddy’s home testing kit.
Each kit includes:
- Swabs for up to 3 people (4 swabs per person)
- Instructions to help you collect your samples
- Consent forms
- Pre-addressed envelope
Doing the Test
Who’ztheDaddy’s home testing kit comes complete with step-by-step instructions for quick and easy cheek cell collection using the mouth swabs provided.
This is quick and easy to do and should take only a few minutes per person. It’s also completely safe and painless.
There are a few things to be aware of before you conduct the test:
- Samples need to be returned along with a completed registration form in the provided reply envelope that comes in each kit.
- You shouldn’t drink tea or coffee or use tobacco products 4 hours before taking your swab, as samples containing the above ingredients won’t process properly.
- You should wash your hands and rinse the applicant's mouth three times with warm water before taking the swab. For infants, they can drink water from a bottle and wait 2 hours from their last feeding.
- Once the lab has received your samples, you can expect your results in 3-5 days if you submit an oral swab. Forensic samples take longer to process.
Understanding Your Results
Once the DNA has been extracted from the submitted cheek swabs, it is analyzed to locate certain regions of chromosomes that are known to vary in length between individuals.
Who’zTheDaddy analyzes 21 of these, and each site is called a “locus”, (“loci” – plural). Analysis of these 21 sites across a large population has revealed many different sized versions associated with each site.
Versions of a DNA sequence or a gene are called “alleles” and these are the genetic markers used in parentage analysis.
Every individual has two of each chromosome, one from their mother and one from their father, so everyone has two alleles at each locus. Sometimes two alleles are identical (homozygous), but usually, they differ in size (heterozygous).
During parentage testing, the laboratory identifies the length of the two alleles found at each locus to identify similarities and differences.
Your paternity test will come in the form of a report and each report will contain a column of numbers that indicate each of the 20 loci involved in the testing process and the 21st locus which is known as the amelogenin sex gene - which is the gene used to establish whether a sample belongs to a male or female (XX for female, and XY for male).
Another column marked “allele” on the report will contain numbers indicating the two alleles found at each locus (or one number if they are the same size).
Who’zTheDaddy gives this example to help clients understand the genetic analysis process: if a child has two alleles designated 12.1 and 18, and the mother has alleles marked 12.1 and 16, then the child inherited the 12.1 allele from the mother.
The child, therefore, has to have inherited the 18 allele from the father, seen as we inherit one from each parent.
To increase the accuracy of the test, fifteen different loci are used as genetic markers, as well as one (Amelogenin) to confirm the gender of the person providing the sample.
If the alleged father does not have the matching allele at every tested locus, then he usually cannot be the biological parent. If his allele matches at each point, then he could be the father.
Who’zTheDaddy indicates the likelihood of parentage with a “relationship index” (called the “Direct Index” in the report) for each locus.
This percentage is calculated based on the sample submitted in the test but also based on a wider calculation of the proportion of the male population that has the obligate paternal allele at that locus. This index is reported for each DNA locus.
In your report, a combined relationship (or “direct”) index for all of the tested alleles is used to calculate the “probability of relationship,” which is the key result in your report.
This is the percentage likelihood that the sample belongs to the biological parent of the child, as compared to an untested, unrelated man of the same race.
If the DNA of the alleged father is consistent with that of the child, then the report will conclude that the alleged father cannot be excluded as the biological father of the child.
If the DNA is not consistent, however, it will conclude that the alleged father can be excluded as the biological father of the child.
Paternity test results are generally highly accurate. Your results will show a “probability of paternity” indicating the likelihood of the tested man being the biological father.
The results will be one of the following:
- 0% probability of paternity - the tested, alleged father is excluded as the biological father
- 99.99% probability of paternity - the tested, alleged father is the biological father of the child
You can increase the accuracy of your paternity test by providing a sample from the mother of the child, as well as the alleged father and the child involved.
If Who’zTheDaddy has the mother’s sample, they can guarantee a minimum probability of 99.99%, whereas without this, if the tested man is not the biological father, results will exclude him with a probability of 100%.
The Human Tissue Act
The Human Tissue Act is important for anyone participating in DNA testing, as it is a regulation regarding the collection and analysis of human tissue.
It means that any DNA sample submitted for analysis must be accompanied by written consent from the person the sample belongs to.
To fully comply with the act, it is also required that the donor of the sample is made fully aware of how their DNA will be used.
Failure to comply with the Human Tissue Act is a criminal offense. Because of this, Who’zTheDaddy requires consent to be given from all test participants, and analysis of the samples cannot go ahead until all required signatures have been received.
Legal DNA Testing
Who’zTheDaddy also offers the option of a legal DNA test when it is necessary to prove relationship status in the court of law.
This may be required in order to register the biological father on a child’s birth certificate or to change the name on a child’s birth certificate.
It may also be needed as evidence for Child Support payments, custody disputes, or in cases of inheritance disputes.
If you do need to use a DNA result in the court of law, you must opt for a legal test. These are more expensive, but meet the necessary legal requirements as they are approved by the Ministry of Justice.
Scroll down for our FAQ section to find out more about legal paternity tests.
Non-invasive Prenatal Paternity Test
There is also the option of a non-invasive prenatal test for mothers who are expecting and have reached their ninth week of pregnancy.
Whereas other prenatal tests such as Amniocentesis or Chorionic Villus are both “invasive” and pose the risk of miscarriage, Who’zTheDaddy’s sampling method uses only maternal blood and guarantees no risk of miscarriage or harm to the baby nor mother.
The test works by taking a blood sample from the mother - which must be done by a medical professional - and mouth swab samples from the alleged father, which he can collect himself.
Once the lab has received your samples, geneticists use Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology to isolate the fetal DNA from the maternal DNA to carry out an extensive analysis of 2,688 genetic markers to determine the likelihood of the alleged father being the biological father of the unborn child.
Why go with Who’zTheDaddy?
There are a few aspects of the Who’zTheDaddy paternity test that sets it apart from its competitors…
- The company offers competitive rates yet provides accredited, reliable services and a high level of customer care. Therefore, you get the same level of expertise as far more expensive companies and save money in the process. Who’zTheDaddy claims they continually monitor the cost of their services in comparison to competitors to ensure that their prices are as low as possible.
- Who’zTheDaddy is held to high ethical standards and is associated with a range of high-profile institutions. Their services comply with the Department of Health’s Code of Practice and Guidance on Genetic Paternity Testing Services.
- Because their services are used by people all over the world, Who’zTheDaddy offers a 24-hour service to their clients, so you’ll always be able to get through to a trained customer service advisor, should you need one.
- The laboratories where the DNA analysis is carried out is accredited by the AABB and accredited in accordance with the recognized International Standard ISO/IEC 17025:2005 by a signatory to the ILAC arrangement.
- While other DNA testing companies test only 16 genetic markers, Who’zTheDaddy tests 21 genetic markers for increased accuracy.
What We Like About This Test
- There are no hidden fees
- The process is fast - you’ll receive your results in only 3-5 working days from receipt of samples at the laboratory.
- It’s cheaper than most on the market
- It’s accurate - Who’zTheDaddy analyzes 21 genetic markers, rather than 16 like most other companies - to increase accuracy.
- 24-hour customer service
- Accredited by AABB
- Discrete delivery
What We Dislike
- Smaller reputation than others on the market
- Website isn’t the easiest to navigate - can be difficult to find the information you require
Frequently Asked Questions
Are my DNA paternity test results conclusive?
Unlike ancestry DNA tests and other relationship DNA tests, paternity test results provide the client(s) with a conclusive result. You will receive a report from Who’zTheDaddy, which will highlight whether or not there is a paternal relationship based on the submitted samples.
If the alleged father IS the biological parent of the child, the accuracy rate will be over 99.9%.
At what age can a child be tested?
DNA testing can be performed at any age, as it involves a simple mouth swab which is safe to do on a child.
What is the difference between a Court Reviewed (legal) DNA test and a Peace of Mind DNA test?
There is no difference in the accuracy of the test result, nor in the way in which the samples are analyzed.
The difference between the two is that with a court-approved DNA test you must attend an appointment so that a professional can confirm the samples were taken from the people shown in the photographs, which you are required to submit alongside your samples.
Each applicant will be asked to provide two passport-sized photographs and must also bring two forms of identification (passport or driving license and a utility bill or proof of address) to the appointment.
Because of the extra processes involved in a legal DNA paternity test, it is inevitably more expensive. However, with a Peace of Mind test, the result is solely for personal knowledge and cannot be used in the court of law.
Can I order a DNA paternity test if the different parties to be tested do not live near each other?
Yes, you simply require a “split kit”, which sends the testing kit to two separate addresses when you order.
Who’zTheDaddy gives each of their sample collection kits a unique case reference number, and if the two parties who will be tested are situated in different cities or countries, they will simply be given separate sample collection kits which share the same case number.
After collection, each individual can return their samples and these will then be matched in the laboratory using the unique case number.
You can order a “split kit” online or over the phone. When ordering online, you simply state that you require a “split kit” in the comments box of the order form and provide the additional name and address you require the kit to be sent to.
The Who’zTheDaddy paternity test is a good option for anybody who requires quick, hassle-free paternity testing from the comfort of their own home.
While Who’zTheDaddy is less well-known than other paternity testing companies on the market, there are a few distinct qualities that make the company stand out.
The main one is that they provide a service that is affordable, efficient, and discrete, while not compromising on quality. Who’zTheDaddy is accredited by the necessary bodies and is widely associated with many significant institutions.
They’re accessible for anybody, regardless of where in the world they are situated, and thanks to their international status they also have a 24-hour customer service line, where you can always speak to a trained adviser.
The test is easy to conduct and can be done from the comfort of your own home, but there are also options for a legal DNA paternity test or an immigration paternity test, should you require one.
Overall, Who’ztheDaddy provides a friendly, accessible service that makes a difficult task as easy as can be, all for an affordable price.